Technical Journal http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal <h3>Aim and Scope</h3> <p><span class="light">Technical journal is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of engineering science and technology that offers platform for researchers, engineers and scientists to publish their original and to date research of high scientific value. It is a double blind peer-reviewed open access academic journal, published quarterly by University of Engineering &amp; Technology, Taxila, Pakistan. Articles published in the Journal illustrate innovations, developments and achievements in the field of engineering and technology. The journal is being published electronically as well as in print form.</span></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2313-7770</strong> (Online) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>ISSN:</strong>1813-1786 (Print)</p> <p><strong>Indexed with:<br> </strong></p> <p>» <a href="https://theadl.com/content.php" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Asian Digital Library</a><strong> <br> </strong> »&nbsp;<a href="http://pastic.gov.pk/searchpsa20.aspx">PASTIC SCIENCE ABSTRACTS</a> <br> »&nbsp;<a href="http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/searchIndex.do?query=UET+Taxila&amp;x=19&amp;y=16">AGRIS DATABASE</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">ProQuest Products</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Aluminum Industry Abstracts</a><br> »<a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html"> ANTE: Abstracts in New Technology &amp; Engineering</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Ceramic Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Civil Engineering Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Computer and Information Systems Abstracts (Module)</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Copper Technical Reference Library</a><br> »<a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html"> Corrosion Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Earthquake Engineering Abstracts</a><br> »&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ebscohost.com/titleLists/aps-coverage.htm?_ga=2.68531409.1976272673.1541933229-958495454.1541348679">EBSCO</a> <br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Electronics &amp; Communications Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Engineering Research Database</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Engineered Materials </a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Environmental Engineering Abstracts </a><br> »<a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html"> Environmental Science and Pollution Management </a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Materials Research Database</a><br> »<a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html"> Mechanical &amp; Transportation Engineering Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/customer-care/title-lists/Title-Lists-CSA.html">Solid State and Superconductivity Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="http://www.proquest.com/documents/Title_List_-_METADEX.html">Metadex</a><br> » <a href="https://www.worldcat.org/title/technical-journal/oclc/917141573&amp;referer=brief_results#reviews">OCLC World Cat</a><br> » <a href="https://lccn.loc.gov/2015325280">Library of Congress, USA</a><br> »<a href="https://www.ebscohost.com/titleLists/aps-coverage.htm?_ga=2.68531409.1976272673.1541933229-958495454.1541348679" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> EBSCO Databases</a></p> <p><strong>Review Type:</strong>&nbsp;Peer Review</p> <p><strong>Frequency:&nbsp;</strong>Quarterly</p> <p><strong>Plagiarism Checking:</strong> Turnitin</p> <p><strong>Publication Charges: </strong>Free of cost&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Submission Charges: </strong>Free of cost<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Journal Type:&nbsp;</strong>Open Access Journal&nbsp;</p> <h2>Contact Us</h2> <table class="table-striped"> <thead> <tr> <th>Name</th> <th>Email</th> <th>Phone</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr class="light"> <td>Prof. Dr. Adnan Habib<br> <strong>Chief Editor</strong></td> <td>adnan.habib@uettaxila.edu.pk</td> <td>+92 (51) 9047845</td> </tr> <tr class="dark"> <td>Asif Ali<br><strong>Editor</strong></td> <td>asif.ali@uettaxila.edu.pk</td> <td>+92 (51) 9047896</td> </tr> <tr class="light"> <td>Faisal Shahzad<br> <strong>Assistant Editor</strong></td> <td>faisal.shahzad@uettaxila.edu.pk</td> <td>+92 (51) 9047491</td> </tr> <tr class="dark"> <td>Engr. Tasawer Khan<br><strong>Web Manager</strong></td> <td>tasawer.khan@uettaxila.edu.pk</td> <td>+92 (51) 9047754</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila Pakistan en-US Technical Journal 1813-1786 <p>The author transfers all copyright ownership of the manuscript entitled (title of article) to the Technical Journal in the event the work is published.</p> Discharge Coefficient for Oblique and Normal Circular Crested Weir http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/842 <p>This paper investigates the effect of geometrical features on coefficient of discharge for circular crested weirs in normal and oblique plane. Experimental program consists of four sizes of weirs and two angles of deviation from the wall of channel. Four models comprised of crest height (15 cm, 17.5 cm, 20 cm, 22.5 cm,) with radius of circular crest (6 cm, 8 cm, 10.0 cm, 12.0 cm) respectively. Angle of inclination used (60°, 30°) and 90° for normal weir for each of the weir size. Outcomes shows that the coefficient of discharge is influenced by the geometrical parameters like radius of circular crest, height of crest and inclination angle. It was noted that larger the radius of circular crest leads to lower the coefficient of discharge for circular crested weir. As well as greater the crest height leads to lower the discharge coefficient ( ). And found that the value of coefficient of discharge of oblique circular crested weir is more than the normal circular crested weir. And it was noticed that the value of &nbsp;increases as the inclination with the wall of channel increases.</p> Allah Bachaya Hashim Nisar Hashmi, Professor Mansoor Ahmad Baluch, Engr ZULFIQAR ALI, Engr Abid Latif, Professor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 24 01 1 4 Proposed Equation of Elastic Modulus of Hybrid Fibres Concrete Cylinders http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/903 <p>There are different types of fibres used to control the cracks and increase the serviceability of concrete members. The present investigation conducted to study the behaviour of hybrid-fibre reinforced concrete (HFRC) to enhance the load carrying capacity of concrete in compression and tension. Two different types of fibres studied in this research; one is steel fibres (SF), and the other is polypropylene fibres (PPF). By using a different volumetric combination of SF and PPF, 42 concrete cylinders are cast in order to study the compressive and tensile behaviour. The results exhibited the physical changes in the concrete due to the addition of different low-volume fractions of SF and PPF. The maximum compressive strength was achieved using 0.7% SF along with 0.3% PPF and the maximum tensile strength was achieved at 0.8% SF and 0.9% PPF by the total volume of the sample. A comparative study was also made for the previously proposed equations of the elastic modulus of concrete in order to obtain an equation which predicts the elastic modulus of HFRC accurately.</p> Afaq Ahmad Qaiser-uz-Zaman Khan Fiaz Tahir Saqib Mehboob Ali Raza ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 24 01 5 14 Stability Control of Ball and Beam System Using Heuristic Computation Based PI-D and PI-PD Controller http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/476 <p>In this paper, heuristic computational based controllers including Proportional Integral- Derivative (PI-D) and Proportional Integral-Proportional Derivative (PI-PD) have been implemented for the stability control of ball &amp; beam system. The tuning of controllers has been performed by two heuristic computational techniques such as Simulated Annealing (SA) and Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA). Further, four different performance indices such as ISE, IAE, ITSE, ITAE have been used for evaluating the transient performance of the controllers. The performance comparison of the controllers has been investigated using MATLAB/Simulink. Comparison of transient performance shows that CSA based PI-PD controller yields relatively better results than SA based PI-PD, PI-D, PSO based I-PD and H infinity based PID controller.</p> Engr. Tayyab Ali Dr. Suheel Abdullah Dr. Muhammad Amir Engr. Muhammad Adeel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 24 01 15 22 A Frequency Reconfigurable And Beam Steering Microstrip Patch Antenna With Triangular Slot For Wearable Fabric Applications http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/901 <p>This paper is related to the design of frequency reconfigurable and beam steering with a triangular slot microstrip patch antenna for wearable applications. Now a days people have been moved towards portable computing systems by using wireless communication systems. The progression in electronic trade, complicated wireless mechanisms have been established which are being applied adjacent to human bodies. Frequency reconfigurable and beam steered model is comprised of a microstrip patch with a Triangular-slot. The proposed antenna is designed on a fabric, where fabric is used as dielectric substrate. The concerned design is able to steer the beam resonant at frequency of 2.4GHz 3.4GHz at different states. The design of the proposed model is integrated with proximity-coupled feeding technique. The addition of two artificial switches between the proximity-coupled feed and the antenna patch, the antenna resulting in four beam directions respective to the modes (S0, S1, and S2 and S3).</p> muhammad imran Saba Salahuddin Shahab Ahmad Niazi sadia murawwat muhammad amjad muhammad zulfiqar ali humayun salahuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-03-29 2019-03-29 24 01 23 29 A Comprehensive Method for the Hybridization of a Conventional ICE Vehicle Using a Flexible Design Tool http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/878 <p>The motive of this published work is to provide a helping tool for the elaborated understanding and core mechanical designing of the power transmission device (mechanical coupling) used in hybrid cars, especially in Toyota Synergy drives. The device combines the powers, in form of product of angular velocities and torques from various power sources i.e. IC engine and the motors. It is a flexible design tool that can be aided to design any vehicle of any size, power, speed and acceleration. In this paper a small sized vehicle is considered as an example vehicle that can be hybridized using this flexible design tool. The results generated are also verified through software simulations using the advance version of Pro-E i.e. PTC Creo. Then using these results, the motor sizing for the required degree of hybridization is also recommended along with the nature of performance curve required by the motor to provide the required design acceleration, speed and power.</p> Syed Arslan Ali Shah Mohammad Aamir Khan, Dr Hafiz Muhammad Zubair Hafiz Usama Hashmat Adeel Qadir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 37 46 Agile Product and Process development by Applying Modular Function Deployment Method http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/617 <p><strong>In the era of globalization, short product life cycles and rising customer demands are some of the challenges. In this context, </strong><strong>Mass customization has been recognized as a successful strategy in the design and development of products that addresses these challenges. Mass customization can be achieved by modularization that is the decomposition of the product into building blocks with interfaces between them. In this paper a modularization method is applied to a consumer product as a case example to develop modules in the product. The analysis of the modules drivers are used to establish the product and manufacturing relationships for agile development. In addition, the modules in the product are used to develop product platforms to gain flexibility in design and development as well as to address the market demands.&nbsp; </strong></p> Tufail Habib Maaz Zakir Rehman Akhtar Usman Ghani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 37 46 Effect of laundering on tensile strength of chemical protective clothing materials http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/448 <p>The present study aims at determining the effect of laundering on the tensile strength of locally manufactured chemical protective clothing materials used in various fertilizer-manufacturing units in Pakistan. The research work was performed at Nishat Mills Limited (Dyeing and Finishing Unit). These samples were evaluated for their tensile strength both in the warp and weft directions at various laundering intervals by following Strip method ISO-13934-1. All the data was analyzed through SPSS version 22. As the data was observed on repeated washing cycles, repeated measurement analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to measure the significance of various washes on tensile strength of samples. A decreasing trend was observed in the tensile strength of all tested sample both in their warp and weft directions after various laundering intervals. Out of these, sample F showed better performance till the 20<sup>th</sup> wash as compared to the other samples due to the inherent properties of polyester fiber. The p-value (0.000) also suggested that there was a significant statistical difference in the tensile strength of samples after various laundering cycles. It was concluded that collected locally manufactured protective clothing materials were not adequate to use, as they failed to meet the required international safety standards.</p> Mehreen Ijaz Samia Kalsoom Niaz Ahmed Akthar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 Brain tumor detection and classification using geometrical shapes as texture descriptors http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/972 <p><strong><em>The existence of abnormal cells in the brain causes a brain tumor. There are two kinds of tumor; Low grade or slow growing tumor and High-grade or fast growing tumor. Patient’s successful treatment depends on the accuracy of tumor detection. Therefore, an automatic system with improved accuracy for tumor detection and classification is required. In this paper, we used geometrical descriptor for tumor detection and classification in Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The performance of these geometrical shape descriptors is evaluated using Local Ternary Pattern (LTPs) and Local Quinary Patterns (LQPs). Experiments are performed on the Kaggle brain MR Imaging dataset. Our experimental results show that the parabola descriptor achieved 97.5% as compared to other geometrical shape descriptors like eclipse and hyperbola. </em></strong></p> Muhammad Zeeshan Zafar Syed Muhammad Adnan Junaid Rashid Wakeel Admad Javaria Ikram ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 Sound Classification of Parkinsonism for Telediagnosis http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/874 <p>In recent years the usage of speech-based data for classification of Parkinson disease (PD) has commonly been assumed as non-invasive and effective mode of classification. As a result, an increased interest is observed in speech pattern analysis techniques appropriate for Parkinsonism with the aim of developing predictive tele-monitoring and tele-diagnosis models. In this research work a method for classification of PD patients was proposed by using different ensemble methods. For this purpose, a set of selected acoustic features are extracted from PD patients’ speech dataset and different classifiers (individual, ensemble and combination of ensemble methods) are applied on these 15 extracted features. The classification accuracies, sensitivity and specificity achieved from the proposed experimental setup of these ensemble methods are higher than the existing methods and approaches.</p> Humair Ali Syed M Adnan Sumair Aziz Wakeel Ahmad M. Obaidullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 Analysis of Low Productivity in Public Sector Automobile Rebuild Organizations http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/957 <p><em>Public sector automobile rebuild industry plays an important role towards national economy in developing countries. Nevertheless, productivity of these public sector organizations remains generally very low as compared to private sector organizations which thrive due to competitive market pressures and profitability. This paper attempts to identify reasons for low productivity in public sector automobile rebuild organizations in developing countries</em>.<em> In order to achieve objective of this research, a public sector automobile rebuild organization was selected and named as Organization-A to keep its confidentiality as promised. Primary data related to automobile rebuilding dynamics was collected from&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Organization-A</em><em>. Data collected was verified qualitatively by conducting semi-structured interviews with open ended questions from thirty two top and middle management professionals. The respondents were serving in different public sector rebuild organizations. Results indicate that reasons for low productivity in public sector automobile rebuild organizations are lengthy public procurement procedures / rules, huge variations in quality of spare parts, diverse variety of vehicles, inappropriate inspection procedures with diluted skill of inspectors, rework and quality issues, lack of accountability, bureaucratic culture, ignorance about productivity techniques and work measurement studies, old vintage/outdated tools and test equipment, improper maintenance, huge inventories, supply chain issues, unsafe workplace and deviation from standard engineering practices.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Low productivity, automobile, rebuild, public sector</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Qasim Khan Syed Athar Masood Shahzad Naeem Qureshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 A Study on Software Metrics and its Impact on Software Quality http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/815 <p>Software metrics offer quantitative basis for predicting the software development process. In this way software quality can be improved very easily. Software quality should be achieved to satisfy the customer with decreasing the software cost and improve the reliability of the software product. In this research, we have discussed how the software metrics affect the quality of the software and which stages of its development software metrics have applied. We discussed the different software metrics and how these metrics have impact on the software quality and reliability. These techniques have been used for improving the quality of software and increase the revenue.</p> Junaid Rashid Toqeer Mahmood Muhammad Wasif Nisar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01 Analysis of Frechet Distribution Based on Type-I Censored Data http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/index.php/technical-journal/article/view/892 <p>In this paper an effort has been made to develop maximum likelihood estimators of two parameters Frechet distribution based on type-I censored data. The observed Fisher information matrix and confidence intervals of the parameters based on asymptotic normality are also derived. An extensive simulation study is conducted to illustrate the statistical properties of the parameters and the confidence intervals. Finally, one real data set about the remission times of leukemia patients is analyzed for illustrative purposes</p> Kamran Abbas Beenish Gilani Samina Sabir Muhammad Altaf Faisal Shahzad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://tj.uettaxila.edu.pk/ 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 24 01