Technical Journal <h3>Aim and Scope</h3> <p><span class="light">Technical journal is a multidisciplinary journal in the field of engineering science and technology that offers platform for researchers, engineers and scientists to publish their original and to date research of high scientific value. It is a double blind peer-reviewed open access academic journal, published quarterly by University of Engineering &amp; Technology, Taxila, Pakistan. Articles published in the Journal illustrate innovations, developments and achievements in the field of engineering and technology. The journal is being published electronically as well as in print form.</span></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 2313-7770</strong> (Online) &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>ISSN:</strong>1813-1786 (Print)</p> <p><strong>Indexed with:<br> <br> </strong> »&nbsp;<a href="">PASTIC SCIENCE ABSTRACTS</a> <br> »&nbsp;<a href=";x=19&amp;y=16">AGRIS DATABASE</a><br> » <a href="">ProQuest Products</a><br> » <a href="">Aluminum Industry Abstracts</a><br> »<a href=""> ANTE: Abstracts in New Technology &amp; Engineering</a><br> » <a href="">Ceramic Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Civil Engineering Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Computer and Information Systems Abstracts (Module)</a><br> » <a href="">Copper Technical Reference Library</a><br> »<a href=""> Corrosion Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Earthquake Engineering Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Electronics &amp; Communications Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Engineering Research Database</a><br> » <a href="">Engineered Materials </a><br> » <a href="">Environmental Engineering Abstracts </a><br> »<a href=""> Environmental Science and Pollution Management </a><br> » <a href="">Materials Research Database</a><br> »<a href=""> Mechanical &amp; Transportation Engineering Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Solid State and Superconductivity Abstracts</a><br> » <a href="">Metadex</a><br> » <a href=";referer=brief_results#reviews">OCLC World Cat</a><br> » <a href="">Library of Congress, USA</a><br> » EBSCO Databases</p> <p><strong>Review Type:</strong>&nbsp;Peer Review</p> <p><strong>Frequency:&nbsp;</strong>Quarterly</p> <p><strong>Publication charges: Free of cost&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h2>Contact Us</h2> <table class="table-striped"> <thead> <tr> <th>Name</th> <th>Email</th> <th>Phone</th> </tr> </thead> <tbody> <tr class="light"> <td>Dr. Adnan Habib<br> <strong>Chief Editor</strong></td> <td></td> <td>+92 (51) 9047845</td> </tr> <tr class="dark"> <td>Asif Ali<br><strong>Editor</strong></td> <td></td> <td>+92 (51) 9047896</td> </tr> <tr class="light"> <td>Faisal Shahzad<br> <strong>Assistant Editor</strong></td> <td></td> <td>+92 (51) 9047491</td> </tr> <tr class="dark"> <td>Engr. Tasawer Khan<br><strong>Web Manager</strong></td> <td></td> <td>+92 (51) 9047754</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila Pakistan en-US Technical Journal 1813-1786 <p>The author transfers all copyright ownership of the manuscript entitled (title of article) to the Technical Journal in the event the work is published.</p> Developing Countries Perspective on Housing Affordability: Recommendations for Pakistan <p>The rapid urbanization during the last few decades has created severe problems of housing especially in the major cities of Pakistan. Housing shortage and enormous rise in housing prices create unaffordability of housing. Most of the people in Pakistan are suffering from housing unaffordability even after allocating major portion of their incomes on housing. The focus of this paper is to identify the factors impeding housing affordability. Different parameters have been identified; these include location, design efficiency, construction material, infrastructure, services, neighborhood design and financial assistance. This paper highlights, how all these parameters could be made effective in order to realize the goal of making housing affordable.</p> Dr. Fariha Tariq Zunaira Zafar Muhammad Salman Javeria Hasan Minahil Nawaz Areesha Gul Sana Malik Nida Batool Sheikh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 1 10 Study and Analysis of Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation Technology and its Temperature Sustainability <p><em>The MHD power generation processes is fundamentally based on physic background of space plasma and its working is based on faradays law of electromagnetic induction. The electricity is directly extracted from thermal energy of plasma (ionized gas) which is passing through the strong magnetic field. This research paper reviews the diverse values of the power generation by the magneto hydrodynamic generator using the basic MHD equation by evaluating different values in the equation of changed variables. It also determines the graphical representation of the variables involves in the evaluation of the power generated by the MHD generator which is the basic information in design analysis and extracting of power output by MHD generator. The research paper suggests the replacing of coal with nuclear reactor (Uranium) and its benefits and effect on environment. It also covers the temperature sustainability of the MHD generator working at high temperatures and the metals to be used to avoid any damages due to high temperatures and to sustain temperature at high levels. Moreover, potential use of nuclear energy means in place of conventional fuels has been presented.</em></p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>MHD (Magneto hydrodynamic Generator, Magnetic field, Hall parameter, Temperature sustainability.</p> Zulfiqar Khattak Sifat Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 11 16 Two-Dimensional Finite Element Modelling of Transient Temperatures In Flash Butt Welded Bars <p>Flash butt welding is a resistance type metal joining process designed to produce butt welds between two materials of similar cross sections. The primary objective of this study was to develop numerical simulation technique for prediction of temperature histories in flash butt welded bars. Welding process variables that affect temperature which were examined include; pre-heat, boundary convection severity, flash duration and material properties. Temperature profile plots were along the longitudinal and radial directions of the bar. The effect of nodal densities on temperature values at a point was examined. Finite element software ANSYS 16.0 was used to solve the quasi-linear thermal transient equation. &nbsp;Non-uniform plane77 mesh size was used in order to allow for higher concentration of nodes around the heat affected zone (HAZ). Applying a bar diameter of 25 mm, length 250 mm and flash duration of 4 seconds, indicated peak temperature values were 1400, 1238.9, 910.18 and 650.68 <sup>0</sup>C at distances 0, 1,&nbsp; 3 and 5 mm from the weld flash line. Peak temperatures generally increased with increased pre-heat condition and flash duration. Simulated peak temperatures were compared with weld temperature results of other related works and close correlations were observed.</p> James Bamigboye Segun Matthew Adedayo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 17 23 Utilization of Exhaust Heat of Internal Combustion Engines for Cooling Purpose: A Review <p>Thermal energy is predominantly released through the coolant and exhaust systems of a typical internal combustion engine. About 20% of the energy released during combustion power produced by burning fuel has the potential to be used for work output and remaining 70-80 % as a part of waste heat as friction, exhausts gas and engine cooling system. This paper presents a brief review of studies conducted by the previous researchers on cooling produced in moving vehicles by using vapor absorption system. It provides information about the importance of utilizing this heat energy released through the exhaust system of internal combustion engines to develop a refrigerant system which does not require the electricity as a primary input.</p> Asif Khan Hafiz Muhammad ali Shahab Khuhnood Syed Shan-e-Haider Shah Muhammad Nouman ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 24 34 Mechanical Characterization of Copper NanoParticles based Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites <p>Polymeric composites are being used<br>extensively used in aerospace, automobile,<br>transportation, chemical, construction and logistics<br>industries. Copper Nanoparticles reinforced GFRP<br>composites have been fabricated to enhance electrical<br>and thermal properties. This project focuses on the<br>addition of the copper nanoparticles and glass fiber<br>reinforced in epoxy-based composites and their<br>properties were probed using certain techniques which<br>include tensile, impact and micro hardness. It was<br>observed that properties mentioned before were<br>enhanced due to the addition of CuNPs. Microscopic<br>characterization was investigated by using Scanning<br>electron microscope and it was observed that CuNPs<br>and glass fibers are properly dispersed in epoxy. After<br>performing the tests, with 8 wt.% of CuNPs and glass<br>fibers better results (tensile, impact and micro<br>hardness) are obtained which favors the material to be<br>used in automotive and aerospace application to some<br>extent.</p> Muhammad Ali Nasir Sharjeel Isaac Riffat Asim Pasha Aneela Wakeel, Dr Tanzeel Ur Rashid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 35 39 Securing Data Communication in Wireless Body Area Networks Using Digital Signatures <p>Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is an evolving technology for healthcare applications. It provides the opportunity to medical service providers to remotely monitor the health status of their patients on real time basis. In WBANs, sensor nodes collect data of vital signs and send to the medical server for further analysis. Since this data contains life-critical sensitive information so the security, privacy and safety of this data is a main challenge. In this paper, we highlight the major issues and challenges related to data security and privacy in WBANs. Further, we propose a data hybrid method named D-Sign for encrypting and decrypting using digital signatures. &nbsp;We also analyze the performance of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art mechanisms aimed to ensure the security and privacy in WBANs.</p> Muhammad Anwar Abdul Hanan Abdullah Rizwan Aslam Butt Muhammad Waqar Ashraf Kashif Naseer Qureshi Fasee Ullah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 23 02 50 55 Classified Structures and Cryptanalysis of Wg-7, Wg-8 and Wg-16 Stream Ciphers <p>The family of WG stream cipher is good for the security of resource constrained devices, they have good randomness properties. These ciphers applied efficiently on Microcontrollers, RFID tags and Sensor nodes. Structures of these ciphers are simple and easy to implement. Security of these ciphers against Time/Memory/Data tradeoff attack, algebraic attack, correlation attack, differential attack, distinguishing attack, cube attack and discrete fourier transform attack. Implementation on 4-bit microcontroller ATAM893D, 8-bit microcontroller ATmega128L from Atmel and 16-bit microcontroller MSP430 from Texas instruments offering a good security on these devices. Comparison with the other stream ciphers, series of lightweight WG stream ciphers WG-7, WG-8 and WG-16 better secured for lightweight embedded applications regarding their utilization of energy and the performance.</p> Abdul Hakeem Majid Muhammad Anwar Muhammad Waqar Ashraf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 23 02 56 62 A Review on Machine Learning Techniques for Software Defect Prediction Software defect prediction has been an interest of research era because predicting defects on early stages improves software quality with reduced cost and effective software management. Researchers from different domains are contributing their efforts to propose an approach that effectively and efficiently helps in this regard. Different machine learning techniques have been applied to remove unnecessary and fault data from defect prone modules and many approaches, frameworks, methods and models have been proposed using different datasets, metrics, and evaluation strategies. In this paper, 30 <a href="">Clarivate</a> Analytics indexed journal papers from 2009-2017 are reviewed for the upcoming practitioners of software defect prediction. Review in this paper reflects some of the work that has been done in software defect prediction so far. Detailed classification taxonomy of the machine learning techniques used for software defect prediction has been presented. Defective, non-defective datasets along with the classification of the metrics used are part of the review. Despite of all works and efforts done in this research domain, there still exist many ambiguities because no single technique and method dominates due to the imbalance nature of different datasets and methods. A lot of research work is needed to overcome the existing issues. Fareeha Hassan Saima Farhan Muhammad Abuzar Fahiem Huma Tauseef ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 63 71 Classification of Tomato Plants’ Leaf Diseases Using Image Segmentation and SVM <p>Plant Disease recognition and classification play vital role in agriculture field. Product quality, quantity or productivity of plants is harshly affected by slight negligence in this domain. Huge amount of human work load for crops intensive care in vast farms can be reduced by automatic system accomplished of perceiving and classifying plant illnesses at early phases. This paper presents image processing framework for plant disease identification and classification. Proposed framework mainly consists of two stages that are feature extraction and classification. We used GLCM for feature extraction along with Support Vector Machines classifier by using content-based image retrieval feature descriptor. Experiments were conducted on Tomato leaf dataset comprising of 4 different classes. Proposed framework achieved 98.3% overall accuracy.</p> Zaka ud Din Syed M. Adnan Rao Wakeel Ahmad Sumair Aziz Waqar Ismail Javed Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 81 88 Queuing Models in the Context of Biological Paradigm in Hospitals Muhammad Altaf Muhammad Jamal Bushra Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-30 2018-08-30 23 02 89 93 Receiver ON time optimization for Watchful sleep mode to enhance Energy Savings of 10-Gigabit Passive Optical Network <p>The Passive optical network (PON) has opened new avenues for the provisioning of very high bandwidths per user through a pure optical fiber based Access Network. However, increasing split ratios in PON are leading to higher power consumption of the PON due to 60% of the power being consumed by the optical network units (ONUs). Recently, watchful sleep mode (WSM) has been added to the PON standards that combines both the cyclic doze and sleep techniques in a single operation by periodically turning on the ONU receiver (RX) during the sleep cycle. However, still, the impact of RX on time on the energy-saving performance of WSM has not been studied.&nbsp; Therefore, this study presents a performance evaluation of the WSM in a 10 Gb/s PON (XG-PON) network with varying RX (ON) times. The investigation is performed with a dynamic bandwidth assignment scheme and real traffic data from Broadcom CATV headend. A comprehensive review of the power saving techniques for XGPON is also presented. The results of the simulation study show that the maximum energy savings are achieved if the RX ON and&nbsp; OFF times are set to 100% duty cycle of the Watch state with non-significantly increases in upstream and downstream delays and variance.</p> Dr. Rizwan Aslam Butt Muhammad Waqar Ashraf Yasir Anwar Muhammad Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-09-04 2018-09-04 23 02 72 80