The COVID-19 Pandemic and its Prediction: A Review of Epidemiology and Preventive Measures for the Containment of Infectious Disease

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Aqsa Shakeel
Hassan Elahi
Muhammad Umar Farooq
Muhammad Raza Ilahi
Sana Ahmed

Abstract

The emergence of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by the novel coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a pandemic across the world, as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. The world has faced similar coronavirus outbreaks caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2003 and 2013, respectively. In this review, we summarize the latest published literature on the epidemiology, dynamics of transmission, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19. Moreover, the prediction model is designed and developed to forecast the number of fatalities and affected people in a given population to improve the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, many researchers are working on preventive mechanisms and clinical trials for the development of potential therapeutics and vaccination as a global health priority for infectious disease. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the community transmission of COVID-19 can be halted by early case detection, contact tracing, and isolation of the infected individuals. The impact of social (e.g., large-scale quarantine, lock-down, and travel restrictions) and personal restrictions (e.g., physical distancing, hand hygiene, and face masks) on the current pandemic situation is analyzed in the review in detail. Lessons learned amid COVID-19 pandemic play an important role in the prevention of future outbreaks.

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING