Characterization and Standardization of Sand for Geotechnical Research in Pakistan

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AllahDitta Kaleem
Naveed Ahmad
Raja Abubakar Khalid
Aamar Danish
Muhammad Safdar
Faheem Butt
Shaheera Sharib


This research paper focuses on characterization and standardization of sand for geotechnical based research activities in Pakistan. Sand samples were collected from five different locations inside Pakistan, keeping in view annual mineral production reports of Mines and Mineral Department Government of Punjab-Pakistan. Samples were tested inside laboratory according to specifications. The tests carried out were color, specific gravity, grain size distribution, minimum and maximum dry density, minimum and maximum void ratio, direct shear test, mineral composition, shape of grains (Metallurgy Microscope) and hydraulic conductivity. Results of samples were compared with Ottowa F-65 & F-50 standard sand in Illinois in United States of America in order to find out standard source of sand for geotechnical research in Pakistan. After comparing samples it was revealed that sand sample having identification D-KP collected from Khusab-Punjab Pakistan has more resemblance with Ottawa-sand therefore this source has been recommended as Standard Sand for Laboratory based Research activities in Pakistan.
Keywords- Lawrencepur Sand, Standardization, Characterization, Geotechnical Research, ASTM

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How to Cite
Kaleem, A., Ahmad, N., Khalid, R., Danish, A., Safdar, M., Butt, F., & Sharib, S. (2021). Characterization and Standardization of Sand for Geotechnical Research in Pakistan. Technical Journal, 26(3), 1-8. Retrieved from

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