Physical Properties and Environmental Effects on the Intensity of Gunshots: A Review

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Fakhre Alam
Sami Ur Rahman
Adnan Khan


Gunshot detection technologies are widely used for security enhancement of public places. Although highly complex algorithms are implemented to detect gunshots i.e. implementation of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Hidden Morkve Model (HMM), Neural Networks (NN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Decision Tree algorithms, but still we are unable to achieve the desired results. There are many factors that affect the accuracy of the gun detection algorithm i.e. direction of weapon, distance between fire arms, types of ammunitions, type of environments, and diffraction of audio. In this review, we presented the concerns of gunshot detection due to which our detection accuracy got affected. At indoor environment diffraction from nearby objects is more than outdoor environments. At indoor environment direction of gun is not greater issue because of distance. Generally, indoor entrainment consists of limited area, so gunshot inside environment will provide highly audible sound and can be easily detected. Outdoor environment is more challenging than indoor, in outdoor environment weapon direction and distance both are important. Here we have focused on all of the mentioned problems that has a direct effect on the accuracy of gunshot detection algorithms. Knowledge of these basic physical properties and environmental effects on the intensity of gunshot could provide valuable information concerned with scene preservation.

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How to Cite
Alam, F., Rahman, S., & Khan, A. (2021). Physical Properties and Environmental Effects on the Intensity of Gunshots: A Review. Technical Journal, 26(3), 42-52. Retrieved from